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美国历届总统简介:第4任总统|美国历届总统简介:第4任总统 詹姆斯麦迪逊

James Madison was the fourth President of the United States. He was born in 1751 in Virginia, the oldest of twelve children. He studied history and government at Princeton (then called the College of New Jersey). He was well read in law, which he studied because he thought it was interesting, not because he wanted to become a lawyer. He is known as the "Father of the Constitution".
詹姆斯·麦迪逊是美国的第四任总统 , 于1751年出生在美国的弗吉尼亚州 。他是家中的长子 , 家里有12个兄弟姐妹 。他曾在普林斯顿大学(当时名为“新泽西学院”)学习历史和政治 。他通晓法律 , 但他之所以学习法律 , 并不是因为他想成为一名律师 , 而是因为他觉得法律很有意思 。他被称为美国“宪法之父” 。
Madison started out in politics at an early age. He served in the Virginia state legislature from 1776 to 1779 and became known as a protégé of Thomas Jefferson. During this time, he helped draft the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. He served a second term in the Virginia House of Delegates from 1784 to 1786. He gained a reputation for his ability to build coalitions.
麦迪逊在早年便开始了他的政治生涯 。1776年至1779年 , 他服务于维吉尼亚州议会 , 被称为托马斯·杰斐逊的门生 。在此期间 , 他协助起草了《弗吉尼亚宗教自由法令》 。1784年至1786年 , 他连任了两届弗吉尼亚州众议院的代表 。他善于创建联盟 , 并因此而闻名 。
Madison was 36 when he attended the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia and made a major contribution to its ratification. He felt he hadn't earned the title of "Father of the Constitution" and wrote that it was not "the offspring of a single brain, but the work of many heads and many hands". In Congress, he helped frame the Bill of Rights and enact the first revenue legislation.
麦迪逊在36岁时参加了美国费城的制宪会议 , 并为它的批准作出了重大贡献 。他觉得他并不是什么“宪法之父” , 他写道:这部宪法并不是“一个人的杰作 , 而是众人的智慧与汗水的结晶 。”在国会任职期间 , 他曾协助制定《权利法案》的框架 , 并颁布了第一条税收法 。
Madison served as President between 1809 and 1817. He led America into the War of 1812 to try to end British interference in American affairs. The war ended in 1815 and is often called "the Second War of American Independence". After the war he promoted a stronger national government and signed a bill that created the Second Bank of the United States. He died at the age of 85 in 1836.
1809年至1817年 , 麦迪逊担任美国总统 。他曾带领美国人参加“1812年战争” , 试图结束英国干涉美国内政的局面 。该战争于1815年结束 , 通常被称为美国的“第二次独立战争” 。战后 , 他促进了一个更强有力的美国政府的建立 , 并签署了一项法案 , 该法案规定成立美国第二银行 。1836年 , 麦迪逊逝世 , 享年85岁 。